بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيْم
اَلْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِيْن،وَالصَّلاۃ وَالسَّلامُ عَلَی النَّبِیِّ الْکَرِيم وَعَلیٰ آله وَاَصْحَابه اَجْمَعِيْن۔
Indeed, Ahadith reached Ummah through authentic sources, without them the Holy Quran cannot be understood
The objections raised by some atheists/infidels (who do not belong to any religion) that the holy ahadith were written in the second century of Hijrah, so how their authenticity can be trusted? To some extent, having been affected by their writings and lectures or due to lack of knowledge and ignorance, some of our brother Muslims also raise this type of questions. There are many articles written on this topic. My detailed article on this subject containing complete references has also been published in three languages. To make it easier for dear readers, I am offering an article in brief. For references/quotes, go through my detailed article available on my website and Apps.
- There are historical witnesses that some companions (May Allah be pleased with them ) of the prophet PBUH with the permission of Prophet PBUH had also written the holy Ahadith when he was alive. Even after his death, some companions had continued the task of writing the holy ahadith. A group of Tabein had shown special interest in writing of ahadith.
- After the revelation of Quran’s verses, the prophet PBUH caused to write them by the writers of Revelation. The number of revelation writers at maximum works out to be fifty. Thus, in the life of prophet PBUH, the holy Quran was truly guarded by way of memorizing, as during that time, there were very few people who knew how to write. In the time of caliphate of Abu Bakart, Quran’s verses that were written in different places were collected in one place. Although, the holy Quran used to be actually protected and saved by memorizing, as this was the unique important source for preservation. In the era of caliph Usmant, when Islam spread from Arabs to non-Arabs, then many versions of Quran were prepared and sent to the governors, instructing them to duplicate versions of Quran in their exact conformity. However, the first preservation of Quran was done through memorization. After the revelation, the holy prophet ﷺroutinely remembered it, as it is mentioned in the holy Quran. Today, also millions of Hafizes scattered in the whole world are playing a prominent role in guarding and preserving the holy Quran.
- In the first century of Hijra, there was no science of the world in the written form, even poetry of any language of the first century of Hijra was not in regular written form. Any authentic history book in any language at any place of the world was not written in the first century of Hijra. Sciences like geology and biology etc. were also not available in written form in the first century of Hijra. This situation is same as the one that a personsays that before fifty years from today, the books were not written by using a computer, whereas this source was not available at all in the world that time, so how the books could have been written by using a computer. Thus, in the first century of Hijra, the writing wasn’t available as the main tool of learning, teaching and preservation, but listening, making to hear and memorizing was the main source. Therefore; no regular book on Biography of the Prophet ﷺhas been publicly brought out in the first Hijra century. Even though, there were some companions who wrote some events/aspects of the prophet’s biography. In the first Hijra century, for the whole human beings who will be coming till the doomsday, the prophet biography used to be narrated verbally, as it was the main source at that time.
- Omar Bin Abdulaziz (May Allah be merciful to him) (99-101H)during his caliphate, at the end of the first Hijra century, under the patronage of Muhaddithin and scholars, he officially caused to gather a great deal of Ahadith in one place. This was the time when a considerable number of scholars who were directly educated and brought up by the companions were alive. In the second Hijra century, when the reading and writing had become ordinarily general, then in the caliphate era of Omar Bin Abdulaziz itself, based on the gathered and collected Ahadith, the Ahadith books were compiled for the first time. Fearing Allah, the Exalted, and with full honesty and devotion, having been taken pains and by travelling long distances for authentication of Ahadith, the Muhaddithin have written Ahadith books.
- There are hundreds of verses in the holy Quran, through them, Allah, the Exalted, has ordered to obey the Messenger PBUH. The instructions for the obedience of the Prophet PBUH is also found in the ahadith.If the collection of ahadith is exposed to any objection, then this will lead us to the denial of hundreds of those Quranic verses that have ordered us to obey the messenger PBUH.
- There are some fabricated/distorted Ahadith that were included in the collection of Ahadith, but in comparison to the whole collection of Ahadith, they are even less than one percent. Furthermore, at that time, the Muhaddithin had devoted their lives and separated the fabricated/distorted Ahadith from the authentic ones. Owing to some fabricated/distorted Ahadith, consideration of such a big collection of Ahadith has doubtful, is not only an unjust decision but a brutal and unfair judgement.
- In the holy Quran, only fundamental concepts are described. There is no detail of commands/orders. If the collection of Ahadith is not trusted, then how it will be possible to follow the Quran? In the holy Quran, the commands for the performance of Prayer, Fasting, Hajj and other basic pillars of Islam are found, but the ways of performance, rules and issues are available in Ahadith only. Allah Almighty Himself stated in the holy Quran that I have revealed the Quran to the last prophet ﷺ, so that he would describe rules and issues to the people clearly. If we will doubt and suspect the collection of Ahadith, then which source will be there through which we know that what Allah wants to say from revelation? It is an undeniable fact that Quran cannot be understood without Ahadith. For example, it is stated in the Quran that the thief’s hand would be cut off, but a question arises here that upon what value of stealing the wealth, the command for hand cutting will be issued, thereafter, which hand is to be cut off and from where? There is no explanation for this in the Holy Quran, so obviously, its details are found in the holy Ahadith. Likewise, it’s said in the Quran (Surah Al-Jumu’ah) O you who have believed, when (the adhan) is called for the prayer on the day of Jumu'ah (Friday), then proceed to the remembrance of Allah and leave all trade (activities). A question may be raised that what is Friday? When will this call be done? What are the call’s words? How Jumu’ah prayer will be performed and what is the correct way? What are conditions and terms of sale and purchase and trading? We can find their entire details in Ahadith only.
- The sources and the means through which, the Quran has reached us, through the same sources, the Ahadith also reached us. Under no circumstances, right from the beginning, each word of Quran was transferred with the utmost frequency and recurrence (despite, its protection was done in the beginning by memorizing), but all the collections of Ahadith were not transferred with frequency and recurrence, therefore; its rank/status comes after the Quran.
- In the world, the weak and bogus means that were adopted for preserving other religious books, cannot be compared at all with very strong protective measures and means that were adopted for preservation and protection of Quran. It is a fact that series of narrations are found in Islam only, i.e. if someone quotes something from Quran and Hadith, thereby, he also states that through which means it reached him and how many persons were involved in the transfer chain of that narration (Ahadith). Now, after compilation of renowned and famous books of Ahadith, it is enough to quote the names of books only, as in the Ahadith’ books along with the words, the sanads are also mentioned, namely through what means and series, this Hadith has reached this author.
- The Ahadith whose sanads are doubtful and suspicious, taking precautionary measures, the Islamic scholars have accepted these kinds of Ahadith in the virtues, but not in accepting orders/commands and issues that are described by them.
- The revelation
Therefore, like Allah Almighty and His prophet cannot be separated, in the same pattern, the holy Quran and Hadith cannot be separated from each other, i.e. it is quite difficult to understand Quran without Ahadith. And how it can be understood, as Allah, the Exalted, has revealed his verses upon Muhammad (the chosen one)ﷺ, so he would explain and denote the meaning and purposes of Allah’s verses through his speech and deed. Allah Almighty, in Surah An-Nisa verse 80, declaring the obedience of the prophet PBUH as the obedience of Allah Almighty, He said: He who obeys the Messenger has obeyed Allah; but those who turn away - We have not sent you over them as a custodian. Moreover, Allah, the Exalted, at various places of the holy Quran has clearly stated that along with the obedience of Allah (SWT), the obedience of the Prophet PBUH is an inevitable thing. It obviously means that the obedience of Allah (SWT) is verily impossible without the obedience of the prophet PBUH. Allah (SWT) has ordained us to obey the prophet PBUH and the means and ways by that, the obedience of the prophet PBUH has reached us, namely the collections of Ahadith, if we used to raise doubt and suspicion towards them, we deny all those verses of the holy Quran and we are implicitly saying that Allah(SWT) has commanded us such thing e.g. the obedience of the prophet, which is beyond our control.
Dr. Mohammad Najeeb Qasmi